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Octopuses have the largest brains of any invertebrate.

Common Octopus   © ARKive

The fact that these creatures, whose ancestors diverged from the lineage that would lead to ours roughly 500 to 700 million years ago, have developed intelligence, emotions, and individual personalities is challenging our understanding of consciousness itself.

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Cownose Rays are known to take on long migrations in schools of thousands of individuals, moving northwards in late Spring and southwards in late Autumn. It is believed that this migration is initiated by the orientation of the sun and by water temperature.

 01-Cownose Rays migration, Gulf of MexicoCownose Rays migration, Gulf of Mexico   © Sandra Critelli

Cownose Rays can be recognised by their unusual bi-lobed head. Under the snout are two large fleshy lobes. These are often mistaken as the entrance to the mouth. The mouth however, is on the underside the fish.

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Unlike most other whales, the beluga has a flexible neck that enables it to turn its head in all directions.

BelugaWhalesBeluga Whale   © Clifton Hill

Belugas are also called white whales, and their unusual colour makes them one of the most familiar and easily distinguishable of all the whales. Calves are born grey or even brown and only fade to white as they become sexually mature around five years of age.

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When a male penguin falls in love with a female penguin, he searches the entire beach to find the perfect pebble to present to her.

natgeoPenguinsPenguins sharing pebbles   © National Geographic

Humans give flowers and candy when impressing a lady. Penguins give rocks. Not just any rocks, though — male Gentoo penguins search through piles of pebbles to find the smoothest, most perfect ones. When a penguin has selected his pebble, he presents it to his intended companion. If she approves, she puts the stone in her nest and the two are well on their way to becoming mommy and daddy birds. Pebbles are so important to the penguins that males often fight over the prettiest selections.

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Manta rays have the largest brain to body weight ratio of any living fish.

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Bottlenose Dolphins give each other names by calling out to each other in individual whistling tunes.

Bottlenose Dolphin   © Flip Nicklin

Out in the pristine waters of Sarasota bay in Florida, scientists from Mote Marine Lab have spent the past thirty years studying the local residents – Bottlenose Dolphins.
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It is a common known fact that noise travels about five times more quickly in the sea. But did you know that there are conditions where sound can travel similar to light in a fiber-optic cable?

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The Jellyfish population in Japanese waters is 100 times greater than 20 years ago.

Nomura’s Jellyfish swarm   © Amazing Story’s

Nomura’s Jellyfish are in the same size class as the lion’s mane jellyfish, the largest jellyfish in the world.
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Larval Clownfish are able to smell their predators.

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In early 2014 researchers have recorded a Cuvier’s Beaked Whale diving for over two hours into the depths of just under 3000 meters (nearly two miles) below the ocean surface, which represents both the deepest and the longest dive ever documented for any marine mammal.

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